JoAnn Portalupi and Ralph Fletcher
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    Lessons from the
    Writer's Notebook

    Contents organized by Genre Cycle
    View Contents by Quality | View Individual Genre Cycles in Depth
      Narrative Cycle 1
      I08 Use Plot, Place, and Character in a Story
      I15 Use General Information and Specific Details
      I22 Bring Your Characters to Life
      I23 Describe What Your Characters Look Like
      I24 Develop the Inner Story
      I25 Develop Your Characters
      I27 Use Details to Bring the Setting Alive
      D03 Organize Your Writing
      D21 Write a Lively Lead
      D22 Write a Waterfall Lead
      D23 Come Up with the Right Ending
      D29 Develop a Scene
      L09 Use Fresh Language
      L13 Vary Sentence Beginnings
      L19 Write Believable Dialogue
      P05 Use Parentheses to Add Information
      P14 Break a Text into Paragraphs
      P15 Stop the Run-on Sentence
      P16 Use Consistent Tense

      Narrative Cycle 2
      I13 Invent Specifics to Fill In Memory Gaps
      I16 Use Inference to Let Readers Fill In the Gap
      D04 Use a Recurring Detail
      D07 Use the 2-3-1 Format for Organization
      D13 Use a Double Focus in a Narrative
      D24 End with a Question
      D25 End with Humor
      D31 Use Details to Alter the Pace of Time
      D33 Use a Symmetrical Design
      L01 Avoid Confusing Pronouns
      L02 Avoid Redundant Words
      L07 Try Repetition in Narrative Writing
      L12 Move from Simple to Complex Sentences
      L17 Tighten Dialogue
      P01 Use a Colon to Introduce a List or Idea
      P02 Use a Semicolon to Pull Together Related Sentences
      P03 Use Commas to Add an Aside
      P06 Use the Dash to Spotlight Part of a Sentence
      P09 Edit for Passive Voice

      Poetry Cycle
      I02 Create a Poem from a Story
      I03 Create a Poem with Imagery, Emotion and Music
      I20 Use a Metaphor
      I21 Use Personification
      D08 Use White Space in a Poem
      D14 Use a Double Focus in a Poem
      D26 End with Your Strongest Line
      L03 Delete the Weak Parts
      L05 Choose Words That Sound Like What They Mean
      L06 Create Line Breaks in a Poem
      L08 Use Alliteration
      L10 Use Repetition in Poetry
      L15 Avoid Clichés
      L20 Use a Thesaurus to Find Just the Right Word
      P17 Use Fragments When You Write a Poem

      Fiction Cycle
      I11 Embellish an Idea
      I18 Value Your Experience
      I26 Make Your Story Believable
      I28 Work with an External Conflict
      I29 Work with an Internal Conflict
      I30 Write in the First Person
      I31 Write in the Second Person
      I32 Write in the Third Person
      D17 Cut to Your Lead
      D19 Lead with the Big Picture
      D27 Control How Time Moves
      D28 Create Suspense in Fiction
      D32 Use a Snapshot Structure
      D34 Use a Triangular Structure
      D35 Write a Circular Story or Poem
      L04 Remove Those Annoying Little Qualifiers
      L11 Combine Short Sentences
      L14 Vary the Length of Sentences

      Nonfiction Cycle
      I14 Use Authentic Details
      I19 Make a Comparison
      D01 Anticipate What the Audience Expects
      D05 Use a Transition Between Ideas
      D06 Use Subtitles to Organize Your Writing
      D09 Capture the Power of One
      D10 Find the Right Distance by Pulling in Close
      D11 Find the Right Distance by Pulling Back
      D18 Lead with a Question
      D20 Open with a Scene
      L16 Avoid Passive Verbs
      L18 Use a Natural Voice
      L24 Use Vocabulary Specific to a Subject
      P04 Use Commas to List Ideas
      P07 Use the Ellipsis

      Launch Cycle
      I01 Create an Authority List
      I04 Dig Up Buried Stories
      I12 Free-Write for Specifics
      I17 Use Supporting Details
      D15 Use a Thematic Focus
      D16 Use a Time Focus
      D30 Find Your Focus
      L21 Use Choice Adjectives
      L22 Use Precise Nouns
      L23 Use Verbs That Describe Action
      P08 Be Aware of Words You Commonly Misspell
      P10 Edit with a Checklist
      P11 Fix Spelling Errors

      Publishing Cycle
      P12 Personalize the Editing Checklist
      P18 Choose an Appropriate Form
      P19 Choose What Gets Published
      P20 Create Illustrations for the Text
      P21 Reflect on Your Writing

      Test Writing Practice Cycle
      I06 Make a Personal Connection
      I09 Use R-U-P-R When Writing to a Prompt
      I10 Elaborate on an Idea
      D02 Include a Beginning, a Middle, and an End
      D12 Stay on Topic
      P13 Reread for Correctness

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